Track: Tools and technologies (II)
Room: Insikten Chair: Alexiei Dingli
Time Author(s) Title Type
Fotis Liarokapis and Adrian Cristea
Fractal Nature - Generating Realistic Terrains for Games
This paper presents a software tool – called Fractal Nature - that provides a set of fractal and physical based methods for creating realistic terrains called Fractal Nature. The output of the program can be used for creating content for video games and serious games. The approach for generating the terrain is based on noise filters, such as Gaussian distribution, capable of rendering highly realistic environments. It is demonstrated how a random terrain can change its shape and visual appearance containing artefacts such as steep slopes and smooth riverbeds. Moreover, two interactive erosion systems, hydraulic and thermal, were implemented. An initial evaluation with 12 expert users provided useful feedback for the applicability of the algorithms in video games as well as insights for future improvements.
Igor Chalás, Zuzana Ferková, Katarína Furmanová, Jiří Sochor and Barbora Kozlíková
Generation of variable human faces from 3D scan dataset
Generating human faces is an important task in many research and application fields, including the gaming industry. When the scene contains many characters, it becomes impracticable to create all individual characters manually. On the other hand, the requirement for the different appearance of faces of individuals in a crowd is now more in demand. In this paper we propose our solution to the automatic generation of human faces. Our solution synthesizes facial parts coming from scans of real human faces; a process that is completely automatic. However, the user has the possibility to further adjust the composite by designing replacements, leading to a desired appearance. The final composite can be exported and attached to a given avatar. As the perception of the variability of resulting composites is in our focus as well, we also present results of the user study which was designed for this purpose. The study aims to reveal the minimal changes of the facial parts which are necessary to make in order to perceive a given facial model as different from the original one.
10:30-11:00Coffee Break
Track: Learning and training (I)
Room: Insikten Chair: Olga De Troyer
Time Author(s) Title Type
Anna-Sofia Alklind Taylor
The active instructor: Benefits and barriers to instructor-led serious gaming
While there is a wealth of studies on the subject of serious games, the same cannot be said on the issue of teaching with games, especially in game-based learning settings with adult learners. Over the years, most research in this area has been focused on the ‘active substance(s)’ of games for learning, focusing mainly on characteristics of games, but often failing to take the whole context of game-based learning into consideration, such as the role(s) of the teacher. However, the past two or three years has seen a shift in focus from merely the game as an isolated artefact, to also include more discussions on how games can successfully be integrated into an educational setting, as well as challenges as pitfalls of which instructors need to be aware. This paper aims to outline the contemporary research on instructor-led serious gaming and its implications for the design of serious gaming environments.
David Panzoli
Communication and knowledge sharing in immersive learning games
Learning games are becoming a serious contender to real-life simulations for professional training, particularly in highly technical jobs where their cost-effectiveness is a sizeable asset. The most appreciated feature of a learning game is to provide in an automatic way to each learner an integrated feedback in real time during the game and, ideally, a personally meaningful debriefing at the end of each session. Immersive learning games use virtual reality and 3D environments to allow several learners at once to collaborate in the most natural way. Managing the communication on the other hand has proven so far a more difficult problem to overcome. In this article, we present a communication system designed to be used in immersive learning games. This innovative system is neither based on voice-chat nor branching dialogues but on the idea that pieces of information can be manipulated as tangible objects in a virtual environment. This system endeavours to offer the simplest and most intuitive way for several learners to acquire and share knowledge in an immersive virtual environment while complying with the requirements of a reliable assessment of their performance. A first experiment with nurse anaesthetist students gives evidence that this simple communication system is apt to support lifelike behaviours such as consultation, debate, conflict or irritation.
Track: Gamification and serious games applications (II)
Room: Insikten Chair: Björn Berg Marklund
Time Author(s) Title Type
Alberto Mora Carreño, Daniel Riera Terrén, Joan Arnedo Moreno and Carina Gonzalez
A literature review of gamification design frameworks
This paper presents a review of the literature on gamification design frameworks. Gamification, understood as the use of game design elements in other contexts for the purpose of engagement, has become a hot topic in the recent years. However, there’s also a cautionary tale to be extracted from Gartner’s reports on the topic: many gamification-based solutions fail because, mostly, they have been created on a whim, or mixing bits and pieces from game components, without a clear and formal design process. The application of a definite design framework aims to be a path to success. Therefore, before starting the gamification of a process, it is very important to know which frameworks or methods exist and their main characteristics. The present review synthesizes the process of gamification design for a successful engagement experience. This review categorizes existing approaches and provides an assessment of their main features, which may prove invaluable to developers of gamified solutions at different levels and scopes.
Juan Vargas, Lilia Garcia, Marcela Genero and Mario Piattini
A systematic mapping study on software gamification quality
Gamified software is currently very popular, and it is expected that it will be widely adopted over the coming years. The social impact of gamified software will probably be very high, and we therefore believe that the assessment and improvement of gamified software quality may be necessary. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic mapping study (SMS) carried out to discover the current state of the research on software gamification quality, in order to identify gaps that merit rigorous future investigation. This SMS allowed us to select 35 papers found in five digital libraries up to April 2014. This paper summarizes the main issues of the planning and the conducting of the SMS. The main results of the data synthesis are detailed and future work is also outlined.
Maria Guadalupe Alvarez Diaz, Ulf Wilhelmsson, Mikael Lebram and Marcus Toftedahl
Using Quiz Game Design for the Collection of Visitor Data at an Exhibition “Your answer will make an impression"
this paper presents the initial results from a project that aimed to collect visitor data at a traveling exhibition starting at the Regional Museum in Kristianstad, Sweden during 2014-2016. The project was intended also to contribute to the creation of an atmosphere “About time”, which was the subject of the exhibit. We built a system that was integrated as an interactable part of the exhibition by using elements of quiz game mechanics in combination with elements of data based tracking applications and elements of visual art installations. The data provides statistics which are used to visualize the current status of the visitors’ attitude toward specific questions about time, imprinting the visitors themselves an integral part of the exhibition. Visitors build a visual Game Ego when answering questions and at the same time provided statistical data that can be monitored and extracted from the system. The results show that we succeeded to some degree but more can be done towards incorporating game design elements to engage the user, such as feedback and challenge.
Track: Affective computing and technologies (I)
Room: Spegeln Chair: Ernst Kruijff
Time Author(s) Title Type
Alexiei Dingli, Andreas Giordimaina and Hector Martinez
Experience Surveillance Suite for Unity 3D
Monitoring the emotional state of players in games can get quite complex, taking into consideration that the game context affects the player and that a game may contain various emotional features. Furthermore, since the experience of playing a game occurs unconsciously, methods such as think aloud may interrupt the playing experience. Other methods include fitting cables and electrodes to the player in order to monitor measurements such as heart rate. Although such devices can offer significant results, they are not commonly found and may cause discomfort. In this project we propose a webcam-based heart rate monitoring method that can be used to predict the player's emotional state. The first objective was to analyze the heart rate changes with respect to the players’ emotional state. The evaluation resulted in positive results, where the heart rate showed correlation with the following emotional states; frustration, fun, challenge and boredom. The second objective was to create a webcam-based method to monitor the heart rate. This was performed by extracting the RGB channels from the face region and then retrieving the underlying components using a dimensionality reduction method. Although the results obtained from the webcam-based method were not ideal, this was expected taking into consideration that the method was tested under realistic scenarios. The last objective was to predict the player's emotional state using the heart rate obtained from the webcam-based method. The accuracy of the prediction was up to 76%, which exceeds the aim of the project. Finally, by using the evaluation results it was possible to define a set of approaches on how this project can be extended by future researchers.
Fernando Bevilacqua, Per Backlund and Henrik Engstrom
Proposal For Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games
The process of monitoring user emotions in serious games or human-computer interaction is usually obtrusive. The work-flow is typically based on sensors that are physically attached to the user. Sometimes those sensors completely disturb the user experience, such as finger sensors that prevent the use of keyboard/mouse. This short paper presents techniques used to remotely measure different signals produced by a person, e.g. heart rate, through the use of a camera and computer vision techniques. The analysis of a combination of such signals (multimodal input) can be used in a variety of applications such as emotion assessment and measurement of cognitive stress. We present a research proposal for measurement of player’s stress level based on a non-contact analysis of multimodal user inputs. Our main contribution is a survey of commonly used methods to remotely measure user input signals related to stress assessment.
14:30-15:00Coffee Break
Track: Health and health care applications (II)
Room: Insikten Chair: Jian Chang
Time Author(s) Title Type
Julia Brich, Katja Rogers, Julian Frommel, Martin Weidhaas, Adrian Brückner, Sarah Mirabile, Tamara Dorn, Valentin Riemer, Claudia Schrader and Michael Weber
LiverDefense: Using A Tower Defense Game As A Customisable Research Tool
In this paper, we present LiverDefense - an educa- tional Tower Defense game illustrating the basic functions of the human liver. LiverDefense serves as an easy-to-use evaluation tool for psychological game-related research since it can be customised with regard to its degree of difficulty. Furthermore, Likert scale questionnaires can be displayed throughout the game and relevant game events can be logged. All customisation is performed via human-readable XML files, abolishing the need for programming proficiency. LiverDefense has been successfully used in a user study focused on exploring the effect of perceived control over gameplay on players’ emotions. We report on the analysis of this study with regard to enjoyment and frustration and the resulting insights on LiverDefense’s usefulness as a customisable research tool.
Ali Asadipour, Kurt Debattista and Alan Chalmers
A Game-based Training Approach to Enhance the Human Hand Motor Learning and Control
This work presents a serious game designed to improve the performance in users’ control abilities applied to pressure sensitivity. In particular, the aim of this work is part of a larger goal of providing medical students with further opportunities of palpation experiences and assistance as part of their education. Typically medical students are limited by the number of volunteers they can practice on and the amount of time they can interact with more experienced practitioners to further develop fundamental palpation skills. Correct palpation skills are crucial as they inform the diagnosis in a large number of healthcare fields and a skill required by most healthcare professionals. The ability to be able to enhance the educational process of healthcare professionals’ palpation skills could lead to a more holistic student experience. This work presents a serious game in which one aspect of palpation, hand control ability through the correct application of pressure to a patient, is the target for user improvement. A serious game modelled on the infinite runner genre was designed to be controlled via an input device developed in-house with off-the-shelf components that translates real-world pressure to in-game movement. The game was tested in a participant trial involving a game-playing group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15) and a significant improvement in a blind-folded pressure test was observed for the game-playing group. User feedback via a questionnaire also showed a positive response of the game.
16:00-17:00Invited speaker: Paul Bennun
Room: Insikten Chair: Per Backlund
17:30-Conference Dinner (bus leaves at 17:30)